An Org. needs people working together, using its resources, towards its goals & mission,  within its framework of methods, rules, and policies.


An Org. is more than the sum of its members and their work. It has a formal, legal existence; it can "die" thru bankruptcy and be "reborn". It can be taken over  by a more powerful org - along with its assets and liabilities. A


Most Orgs. (all 4 types) have employees who (i) do the work and (ii) depend on this job for their income/ livelihood.

Unemployment on a large scale is a major societal problem when it happens.

Managing PEOPLE (workers) and managing WORK are both required.

The interests of workers and customers/ /beneficiaries are not always aligned but need to be. Link to Relational Coord.

WHO BENEFITS and WHO OWNS the Organization?

44 4

4 main categories/types:


Public Sector/Government Orgs.

The nation/state/town/region benefits.

    e.g. Army, FEMA, IRS, EPA, Fire Dept. 

Includes some monopoly utilities (e.g. electric, water suppliers, transit) created by special legislation. 


Private Sector/Business Orgs.

 Owners & investors benefit from profits.

 e.g. IBM, Disney, Exxon, 711, cruise line 

Civic, Charitable Orgs. (Third Sector)

The Org. exists to address a social problem

    e.g. Red Cross, YMCA, Oxfam, PBS

Org. mission determines which target group/problem.

Membership (Mutual Benefit) Orgs. 

"Members only" own and benefit

va e.g. Churches, trade/lobbying associations, unions, co-op houses, country clubs, burial societies, sister/brotherhoods, hobby groups

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Barry Sugarman