get good results and survive in a world that has never held fiercer competition or more frequent  change.

HOW can they do it?

One answer (out of two):  They do it thru



      i.e. thru TEAMS of people

coordinating within teams 

and between teams.

and that effective Team Work depends on

three essential factors:

      - shared goals

      - sharing of necessary information

     - mutual respect among members




Another good answer would say they thrive thru



Large organizations usually have a formal structure that prescribes certain connections between teams and defines the hierarchy of authority among managers. In addition informal relationships often develop as members at all levels reach out to others for help they need, back and forth. 


Organizational learning  creates and requires networks of relationships and leads to workers/ members innovating and adapting practices, borrowing and sharing. Individual learning becomes organizational learning when these innovations are incorporated into "how we do things here".  

Both formal and informal aspects of organizations must be understood and supported BUT they are often in conflict. Many managers see only the formal side (which gives them their authority) and neglect to support the informal networks and the informal leaders. Or the opposite problem is when managers exploit the informal leaders, encouraging workers to go to them for help, so they are overburdened  - in effect punished for their exemplary skills.  


 More on this later in Duality Theory and Ambidextrous Management.

That topic continues with "Both/And"  theory 


   To TOP


Barry Sugarman