get good results and survive long-term in a world of fierce competition and constant change.
HOW can they do it?
One answer: they do it thru
Another good answer would say they do it thru
i.e. thru TEAMS of people
coordinating within teams
and between teams.
and that effective Team Work depends on
three essential factors:
- shared goals
- sharing necessary information
- mutual respect among members
FORMAL and INFORMAL ORGanizing
Large organizations usually have a formal structure that prescribes connections between teams and lines of authority among managers (bureaucracy). In addition informal relationships often develop especially thru the pressure for Continuous Improvement.
This organizational learning creates and requires networks of relationships and leads to widespread innovation and adapting of practices (action learning and adaptive structuration theory).
Both formal and informal aspects of organizations must be understood and supported BUT they are often in conflict. Many managers see only the formal side (which gives them their authority) and neglect to support the informal networks and their informal leaders. More on this later in Duality Theory and Ambidextrous Management.
That topic continues with "Both/And" theory